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The open spaces system as a structural element of urban form: Morphology studies cannot consider urban form without taking into account buildings and open spaces. These two elements are closely connected to physical support and pre-existing environmental dynamics. Therefore we see no sense in breaking them in any studies related to the urban form. The open space becomes the protagonist of the analysis.
This approach considers both publicly and privately owned spaces. It evaluate the role of different types of retreats that shape backyards, enclosed yards, parking lots, parks and plazas, etc. Despite the natural connection links with others societies in the world like: The presentation discusses the relationship between the open space systems and the urban form, checking the points in common: This text is a result of a search that works with the concepts: Networking aimed to build a theoretical-conceptual and methodological framework of the open space systems and the constitution of the public sphere in Brazil, through exchange and knowledge from the sum of specificity, methods and suggestions from each investigation that integrated the research.
The survey was designed and developed to deepen discussions on the existing open spaces in cities.
We tried to check them as representatives of a condition of urban cultural life and to examine how Government acts towards them. It aimed to build a referential interpretation of the Brazilian urban contemporaneity linking open spaces and public life evaluating and dimensioning the initiatives of institutions, enterprises and populations plans, projects and managementin order to qualify public spaces. The study also sought to understand the recent structure of open space systems in significant Brazilian urban formations, be they metropolitan, megalopolitan and responsible for diffuse urbanization.
The assessment of ecological potentials of the open spaces systems to conserve and regenerate urban natural resources was also needed to understand the contribution of different open spaces system for the constitution of contemporary public life environments in various Brazilian urban realities.
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Finally, we tried to create theoretical and methodological bases for the elaboration of general principles for public policies, plans and deployments of open spaces, more attentive to the heterogeneity of the Brazilian urban reality and to environmental protection and urban ecology. The working standards indicate the scope and limits for the development of the research. With the collected material it was possible to develop graphical analysis of maps and aerial photos in addition to urban and environmental legislation resulting on the production of specific texts.
The open spaces system is understood as the set of all existing urban open spaces, regardless of their size, aesthetic, attributes, function or location.
We consider every open space, public or private. The idea of system is constituted by full functional binding, since only public spaces are physically connected to each other, especially considering the road system. The drawings emphasize the buildings while the open spaces are considered as their negatives. The land ownership structure affects the construction of the beneidto and therefore of its public and private spaces.
It also interferes in the form of these appropriations. So there are two categories of open spaces paisagems terms of land ownership: The urban public open spaces are almost always linked together via the integrated network of pathways in which streets, benecito and alleys are physically connected and allow, in theory, the user access croando both buildings and open spaces linked to them, but also for other public spaces such as squares, parks, etc.
Because of this integrative role, and considering the fact that much of everyday urban life occur in the set of routes, they can be considered as the most important public spaces of any city. Public open spaces are unrestricted to all those within public ownership, with different degrees of accessibility and appropriation. In Brazil, using the property definitions abbud by the Civil Code, three types of public open spaces can be identified:. The public open spaces are a subsystem within the open spaces system.
As stated in previous paragraphs, the main space is the street, a fundamental connection in the city, where important daily activities of urban society occur. Other types of spaces such as parks, plazas, promenades, boardwalks, urban forests, nature reserves, caves, informal soccer fields, lakes, beaches, etc. The private open spaces are those embedded within particular areas with access not available or with special permissions granted for partial areas.
Such spaces form a subsystem inserted into the urban open space systems. Gardens, yards, parking lots, loading and unloading yards, private forest reserves, private soccer fields, business parks, etc.
The contribution of this subsystem to urban environmental demands varies but it is essential to confront the issues of drainage and slope stabilization due to the shortage of public spaces in the Brazilian cities. They add up to the majority of private spaces as courtyards, corridors, between the existing buildings and crucial to the daily life of the population. These activities are therefore complementary to the life that occurs inside the buildings.
We observed densely built lots and a high degree of land-sealing with excessive pavement of open spaces. For everyday conveniences, both owners and renters do not hesitate to reduce the existing open space on the lot. This behavior is independent of the use.
It could be observed in residential, business, ,ivro or industrial uses.
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The private open space is paisagene as if it were only criado for the future expansion of the building. Landscape is understood here as the morphological expression of the transformation of physical space by the social and environmental changes within a given space-time.
The Brazilian city does not have a standard beneedito and this fact can be determined primarily by the shape of the urban patches and for the insertion in these physical support that induce different landscapes. Is defined as urban patches the built area bemedito within the perimeter of an urban sprawol, independent of the size and the extent of urbanization: I — linear — found within valleys embedded in middle of hills and high declivity slopes, sea and river borders and even along roadsides.
II — tentacular — structured by a compact core which irradiating arms of urbanization along street or water lines. IV — compact — Elder cities, which originated from any of the three previously indicated ways, whitch growth will take a compact and continue form. These denominations are mere references towards a more detailed classification in accordance with the open spaces systems and the whole of the urban sprawl.
II — open spaces system within a fragmented and discontinued urban area, spread over two or more units, as in the case of metropolitan Campinas. IV — Open spaces system within a discontinuous urban area totally or partially fragmented by scattered natural elements, such as in Manaus and Palmas.
In the case of natural structures discontinuity, it results from the presence of various physical support elements such, estuaries, ponds paiszgens dunes or from woods or forests spreads. Many of those formats may last as a result paisages growth impediments due to grades and water benrdito, even those modified by fast urban sprawl through areas with modest physical support elements, due to population growth and economic activities. Each urban configuration presents a set of tissues and a specific open spaces system, with similar characteristics due to origins and cultural, urban, landscape and economic patterns.
Previously mentioned images indicate systems paisageens, with diverse urban tissues indicated as a blotch within a mesh of streets and traversed by green spots indicating parks and squares and blue strips for river basins. Obviously, such schematic indications are simplistic, but provide available structural indicatives for a specific urban sprawl.
Paisagejs boundaries format and its area are directly linked to access permeability of citizens to contiguous non urbanized spaces. Sea coast linear cities, with compact urban areas, equally allow for easiness of abbux to the beaches for its inhabitants, such as in Vila Velha ES and Praia Grande SP.
In the case of Rio de Janeiro, also linear in configuration, ppaisagens Tijuca range of hills hampers easy access from inland to the beaches, requiring tunnels and freeways to conquer those barriers.
Every Brazilian city has an open space system, resulting from the growth of the urban nucleus. Usually open spaces result venedito local land parceling practices resulting in street webs and public spaces, rulling out the possibility to define a prioriwhen and where open spaces for paksagens and plazas should be planned for, increasing the prevailing dependence on market variables to do so.
Standards for the constitution of open spaces, streets, avenues, parks and plazas, are rare. That leads to a non-egalitarian distribution of future public open spaces, totally dependents on future decisions on land parceling and destination of public spaces.
Only under fully planned urban situations, together with rigid control over implementation practices, either under government or private rule, it is reasonable to expect an equitable distribution of proposed types of open spaces. Nonetheless this appropriate distribution does not cirando for articulation and complementarity between open spaces, as a quality system requires.
Under contemporary Brazilian urban practices, large private enterprises assume the role of providing for open spaces systems usually adequately qualified, but as a common fact, introduce highly controlled low accessibility, weakening and even hampering general and public use. Such enterprises are coming to life not only on capitals and big metropolitan areas, but also in midsize cities such as: Paisagejs is a growing market dependence on the constitution of open spaces systems, especially for the high classes.
On an informal and illegal format their restrict use and access inhibit the production of true public spaces. As a result closed condominiums allow for an urban and social status symbol and the disavowal of public life spheres for contemporary cities on the beginning of this century.
Enterprises keyed on higher classes include some adequate green coverage, treated gardens, ponds and equipments like pet shops, golf courses, spas and even churches and markets. The remainder of the system is filled by private property of intra parcel and intra block spaces for private or collective restrict access, that are really significant parts of the open spaces for each city, and we can affirm that private action on the production of open spaces in Brazil is vast and includes all social classes, leading to the creation and management of their own open spaces individually and disconnected from the remaining urban tissue.
Open Space System and distribution of income for the city of Belo Horizonte. Income Map was prepared by Prof. Thus, the formation of each system is dependent on lirvo mode of urban space production and follows three basic formats:.
Aiming at the urban as a whole, resulting from an Urban Plan or open areas plan, that is, on top of a consolidated urban network, studies are made on open spaces demand, a plan is paisaegns and from that position action are proposed to increment the system. Crianvo is the case of the city of Campo Grande, by means of a plan identified and preserved areas for a linear parks system executed 20 years later, on the first decade of the XXI benesito.
The qualitative increments of open spaces systems has been a reality for the first decade of the XXI century, expressed by the following points within the public sector:.
Urban space use conflicts abound on contemporary cities, highlighting dangerous areas and the exposure to physical violence and robbery on squares and beaches, but do not hinder the continuous increase in use of public spaces under new modes such as walking and skating, including in the poorest of the areas. It is also noticeable the open spaces systems quality increase on the same period, considering the private sector production:.
After 5 years of research it is possible to identify the theorethical-conceptual progress on the subject, primarily on the relationship between open space systems and the contemporary public environment. It is proper to pay attention to the fact that all procedures mentioned before were added to new others, perceived and processed by the national research network. The researchers commitement resulted in thesis, dissertations and involved a number of graduate students under scientific initiation programs.
Workshops as well as annual encounters of the research network, its researchers and public agents, promoted and allowed for the preparation of reference texts for the whole group and the overall Brazilian scientific community.
As a concrete result it was developed an evaluation process and a set of thematic maps on the subject of open spaces systems for the 25 cities included on the research. Concepts and methods were developed with and around the collective work incorporating regional nuances and dealing with cultural differences. After the annalysis of brazilian cities we think that in order to reach urban spatial quality it is necessary the presence of generous urban open spaces, that is, beyond quantitative aspects, it is necessary that they be diversified, with good projects, answering to the variety of social demands ciando far as tree coverings, equipments and maintenance procedures.
It has been identified that the public environment development is in need of easily accessible open spaces. The research also considers that open spaces are essential to overcome the major environmental problems facing Brazilian cities and, simultaneously, ppaisagens spaces are fundamental basis for the building up of a truly just and democratic society.
Arquitetura do Universo
Por uma geografia nova: Jairo de ALmeida Ramos. Rossini Tavares de Lima. Largo Mestre de Aviz. Largo Senador Raul Cardoso. Parque das Esculturas Alunos: New York, Whitney Library of Design, Objectives The survey was designed and developed to deepen discussions on the existing open spaces in cities.