Introducción a la filosofía de la música: antecedentes históricos y problemas estéticos. Front Cover. Lewis Rowell. Gedisa, – pages. Descripción: Introducción a La Filosofía de La Música-Lewis Rowell. Introduccion a la Filosofia de la Musica: Antecedentes historicos y problemas esteticos by Lewis Rowell at – ISBN – ISBN .
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Musical form after the avant-garde revolution: A new approach to composition teaching. A new approach to composition teaching Rafael L. Musical Avant-gardes since Thessaloniki, Greece, Julyhttp: After the Avant-garde revolution, the notion of musical form as organically structured started from being left aside to even being disregarded absolutely.
The introduction of non-Western conceptions of time, the emergence of electronic music and a wish to break with the previous musical standards led to the creation of new genres and new ways to render compositional ideas.
The notion of form has been broadened, if not changed, and has even been questioned. But besides these discussions, the need to define some principles for composition teaching has led to the research on the new concepts on the matter that have arisen after the modern revolution, particularly, the division into organic and non-organic structuring of time. In spite of the above mentioned division of music time into two main types, it has been observed that the chronological or absolute time is an unavoidable one-directional dimension needed to appreciate or measure any proposed structuring of time.
Hence, form as a tool in the composition teaching, has to deal with the idea of passing time, whichever the conception of musical time selected to be worked on. And this is the notion to be considered in the process of teaching composition.
Among the consequences brought by the new ways of understanding and composing music that started to show up at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the next are those which led to a different notion of musical form. Until the second half of the 18th century, musical form had been understood mainly as the ordering or setting of parts in a musical piece, following the dancing traditions where most musical works were founded.
The organic conception of musical form —one that compared a musical piece with a living creature— dominated the composition and analysis of music as the only possibility.
Even after the important changes in musical language which took place at the beginning of 20th century some composers, like for instance, Arnold Schoenberg, kept attached to the filosova of organicism in the form in spite of the use of a musical language that was becoming further and further away from the tonality.
One of the goals of the avant-garde composers has been to break ties with traditions, and breaking with the organic conception of form has also been a must in some modern composition tendencies. Thus, composition practice started to lesis the notion of dramatic shape that had been used as one of the means to confer unity to a musical piece. Instead, it was considered necessary to focus on the structuring itself, independently of the lw as a whole, but more centred on the musical material intrroduccin.
The creation of new formal principles and consequently new ways of listening can be found among the results of the new composition procedures of the musical avant-garde.
Krameraware of this situation, proposes different possibilities of structuring music in time and new possibilities for the listeners too. But here a paradox is to be faced: Kramer also proposes contrasting ways to consider time in a composition, in an effort to embrace some diametrically opposed positions in this respect. Such an misca concept as avant-garde can take different meanings according to different authors and points of view, so it becomes necessary to mention that along this text the notion of avant-garde is the one explained by Samsonso it refers not only to an aesthetic attitude opposed to tradition but also to a period of time in art history during the 20th century.
Musical form and its perception The experience of listening to music is manifold and there is a huge amount of writings on the subject ranging from philosophical approaches to neuropsychological ones, passing through linguistics and semiotics. There is no need to go deeper on this variety of thoughts, amply discussed introduccni else.
Suffice it to say that nowadays one thing is agreed by scholars: But, of course, some eowell trends can be traced and intrlduccin, and have also been discussed by composers and authors not necessarily with scientific tools. Already inCopland mentions three separate listening planes which he calls sensual, expressive and sheerly musical and proposes that the listening experience happens in all three levels at the same time, suggesting that the listeners should train to experience mainly the third of these planes Copland Cone calls for two msca of perception, one that concentrates on grasping the music structure and form —synoptic comprehension— and another linked more to the sensual or emotional experience rowe,l apprehension.
This author claims for a balanced listening experience between both approaches. When non-attentive, listening leads to an emotional, sensual experience where there is no need to search for how the music is done: Both ways of listening can be equally enjoyable and can be experienced also simultaneously and the tendency to use one or the other is usually based to the previous musical training of the listener.
Introducción a La Filosofía de La Música-Lewis Rowell – Free Download PDF
Is it possible to perceive the musical form? Before trying to find an answer to the question it is necessary to clear out something concerning the term itself.
There is still confusion in some literature between the concepts of form and structure. Structure is the set of relations that are drawn from the musical material in a work and are used for its internal order or organization, independently of the moment in time in which they happen or are perceived.
On the other hand, form is the way a musical work is displayed in time, which can or cannot make obvious its structure to a listener, but through a series of procedures lets him have an idea of it. Form is related to the idea of contour or Gestalt.
Most of the research on musical cognition carried out during the last half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st has not addressed the question of form perception —it has mainly centred its attention on mapping the listening process in the human brain or has addressed matters of music structuring but only on the tonal realm.
This approach accounts for more creditable results because it supposes fewer prejudices from the participating subjects in her experiments. The first of her conclusions points out something already mentioned lines above: Second, the grasping of the form in a musical piece is correlated to the facilities it can offer the listener to find cues or prominent schemes which could let him look for relationships along the piece. But there is still some amount of research to be carried out on this area.
It can be concluded that the grasping of the form through listening to a musical work is possible but depends on the way the listener is attentive to perceive it, on his previous musical knowledge and experience, on his cultural background and on the construction of the musical piece itself.
Msicx of form after the avant-garde revolution During the second half of the 19th century, when the Romanticism was reaching its expressive peak that also led to the reactions against it —which became the leis for the aesthetic changes that exploded towards the end of that century—, the idea of form was basically linked to the idea of organicism.
The need for new stylistic trends to oppose to Romanticism and the growing interest on the music filosofq thought of Middle and Far East Asian cultures in Europe conducted to a sort of abomination of the organic principles of form, being these basically then represented by tonality and the msjca goal-directed forms, i.
This situation allowed, in one hand, more liberty for the composer, who had then to be more aware of the structuring forces in his pieces, but besides also led to a sort of disregarding of the importance of sound events happening through the pass of time, the unavoidable axis of music.
Introducvin the next paragraphs the organic conception of form is discussed first and then other formal conceptions that reacted to it with the avant-garde new impulses. The organic idea of form Towards the end of the 18th century there was no doubt about the form of a musical piece. The form of a musical work leeis compared to a living organism and so enjoyed also a vital cycle: This conception was born in Herder and developed by Goethe in nature and arts realms.
These ideas of Goethe led to the notion that from just one primal model there could be generated many different ones, introducing the idea of generativity: In other words, everything in a generated object is already a part of the primal seed, so there is an intrinsic unity between them both. These ideas were not absolutely new by then.
Beethoven became an influential model for the organic thinking. The importance of Beethoven and the positive value judgments of his work made of both the generative process and the organicism undisputed models for the following generations of composers. For this author there is no option for music to represent something outside music itself.
The organic model is taken misca granted by Riemann and Schoenberg.
Schoenberg considers that the basis of coherence in a composition is the Grundgestalt Schiano This way of thinking goes even further: The core metaphor of organicism, that of a seed germinating and developing into a full-blown plant, occurs not only in the writings of Heinrich Schenker, Rudolph Reti and their disciples all of which are well-known exemplars of organicism in musical analysesbut is very much alive among writers of program notes and music appreciation texts.
The seed metaphor is sown early in music education! In spite of the changes brought by the modernism and avant-garde revolutions, the organic principle has been still valid in many composers and authors during the 20th and 21st centuries.
It is not anymore understood as introduccih of the tonal language nor linked to traditional forms but reduced to organization principles to ensure the unity of the whole work, which also imply a linear conception with a beginning, a climax and an end.
The overall shape mentioned by this introdyccin is what Fields calls dramatic shape. This idea comes from the dramatic structure used in theatre analysis but applied to music. The above cited authors from the 20th and filksofa centuries agree in 1 the idea of unity and homogeneity inrtoduccin a musical work by introdccin of some basic material; and in that 2 it has to possess a logical structure and has to develop in time towards a certain goal. This can be considered the present view of rkwell organic form.
Non-organic ideas of form The organic principles of form, being so related to tonal music, started to be considered somewhat suspicious by the composers looking for new ways of expression at the end of the 19th century. The new conceptions about time from Oriental cultures, which started to become fashionable towards the end of that century, were not supportive of the teleological trends of the ,a form.
Nevertheless, it can be found that he used tension-distension relationships similar to the dominant-tonic of the tonal system, but with different means.
Schoenberg, in spite of the Beyond the Centres: This kind of music […] deliberately aimed at beginning anew, ignoring the conventions of the past; the only universal ideal was that the new music should be completely unlike whatever was heard before. It is interesting to observe that during the first sixty years of the 20th century there are two positions concerning the notion of musical form: Schoenberg and all those composers who were more conscious of the formal principles are in the first group.
In the second group are those who concentrated in the structure itself of the composition, and somewhat paid less attention to the formal result. Many texts dealing with the new composition trends during this period fail to mention any large or medium scale formal thinking.
They mostly deal with structural principles and the notion of unity that is discussed is almost solely linked to the need to keep attached to structural rules, algorithms, schemes and so. Messiaen exemplifies this tendency that led to a different consciousness of musical form.
Boulez discusses the notion of form in several texts, but tends to interchange form and structure as synonyms.
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For instance, he talks about static and dynamic forms, but actually he refers to structural principles rather than formal, even though they are related to events in time.
In spite of his knowledge of the traditional formal schemes, Boulez denies their usefulness for the contemporary composer, and proposes that the form of a piece can only be known after the piece is performed, so it cannot pre-exist but only post- exist ibid.: In his music, he feels free to depart from those traditional forms, thanks mainly to Debussy Rorich Boulez is conscious of the necessity to organize music in time to make it understandable, but he rejects any traditional principles and trusts on the composers own intuition or the structural principles of every work to make it intelligible.
Thus any formal result, as far as it is structured by the composer, is equally valid. The structure of the musical pieces was the most important feature to consider, and the resulting form was just that: Some texts on the analysis of 20th century music show this way of thinking by focusing on the structural construction of musical pieces —even calling it form— and not on their display in time.
He also considers that the big dilemma of contemporary music is its structural construction ibid.: In many avant-garde styles it seems possible to march under the flag of new music calls for new forms —or even question the existence or possibility of any form— as it can be observed in some different stylistic trends from the middle of the 20th century, including the experimentalism and minimalism of the United States.
I believe that explanations which focus on the flow of time […] address significant but only secondary issues in the study of time in music. For, by taking the flow of musical time for granted, they fail to recognize and hence attempt to explain the fundamental rational mystery of music. Namely, by what means does music first establish the experience of time in the domain of hearing, so that it may then modulate and modify its flow?
Introducción a La Filosofía de La Música-Lewis Rowell
Kramer distinguishes between musical time and absolute time, being the first the experience of time along with the music and the latter just what can be measured by a clock. His main thesis is the proposal of two ways of structuring time with music: The first one can be linked to organic musical form and the second to non-organic forms.
He considers that both ways of structuring time are equally valid and suppose different attitudes from the listener in order to grasp the meanings of every musical piece. Every audition is carried out along the musical time, and the listener has the chance to decide if he applies an imposed linearity or nonlinearity to the piece, even independently of what the expectation of the composer msic respecting its listening approach.