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Provisions concerning mandatory origin labelling of unprocessed meat of swine, poultry, sheep and goat 4. Commission report on the mandatory indication of origin for meat used as an ingredient 6. Evaluation of existing traceability systems for the purposes of origin labelling. Possible scenarios on the provision of origin information for meat used as an ingredient Mandatory origin labelling based on origin split in three stages — “born, raised and slaughtered” — following the model already applicable for unprocessed beef.
Mandatory origin labelling based only on the place of birth, or place of birth and slaughter or only place of slaughter Feasibility and Analysis of costs and benefits of the different scenarios concerning the provision of origin labelling for meat used as an ingredient Overview of the costs and benefits of the different scenarios under consideration. Consumers’ sensitivity to origin of foods has grown over the years.
Many food businesses rely on origin branding for marketing purposes due to favourable connotations of specific countries or regions. Therefore, origin has become a relevant issue not only for businesses but also for policy makers. It intends to present available information and data concerning the potential extension of mandatory origin labelling for meat used as an ingredient in prepacked foods, while taking into account consumers’ attitude and their need to be informed, the feasibility of providing the mandatory indication of the country of origin or place of provenance and an analysis of the costs and benefits of the introduction of such measures, including the legal impact on the internal market and the impact on international trade.
It mainly builds upon the results of an external study commissioned by DG SANCO and carried out between October and June by the Food Chain Evaluation Consortium FCECtitled “Study on the application of rules on voluntary origin labelling of foods and on the mandatory indication of country of origin or place of provenance of meat used as an ingredient” hereinafter the ‘FCEC study’  as well as on other available sources on this subject.
Prior to the adoption of the FIC Regulation, there were no Union provisions imposing mandatory origin labelling on foods in general on a horizontal basis. Mandatory origin provisions have been developed on the basis of vertical approaches for certain foodstuffs.
Indeed, the indication of origin is currently mandatory for unprocessed beef and beef products e. While in the case of beef and beef products, the introduction of mandatory origin labelling is rooted in a food safety crisis, for all other specific food products, the rationale is rather the close link between the origin and the specific characteristics of the foods in question.
The FIC Regulation introduces — for the first time — specific provisions concerning the indication of origin on foods on a horizontal basis. It introduces mandatory origin labelling for unprocessed meat of swine, poultry, sheep and goat.
It also provides harmonised rules concerning the origin of the primary ingredient swhen the origin of a food is given.
Finally, it acknowledges the need to explore the possibility to extend mandatory origin labelling for other specific categories of foods on the basis of Commission reports, including meat of all species when used as an ingredient in prepacked foods. The impact assessment d supported the FIC Regulation indicated that the origin of meat appears to be consumers’ prime concern. Meat of the poultry llei heating fowls of the species Gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowlsfresh, chilled or frozen.
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The FIC Regulation requires the Commission to adopt implementing acts by 13 Decembersetting out the modalities of such mandatory origin labelling, following an impact assessment, and taking into account the following points in the life of the animal: In some cases, food business operators ‘FBOs’ kei the origin of a food on a voluntary basis to draw consumers’ attention to the qualities of their product.
The 20002 Regulation sets out harmonised criteria for such labelling. Accordingly, Article 26 3 of the FIC Regulation provides that where the country of origin or the place of provenance of a food is given and where it is not the same as that of its primary ingredient:.
The Commission is required to adopt implementing acts setting out the modalities for the application of this origin requirement by 13 Decemberfollowing an impact assessment.
The present analysis supports the Commission report regarding the mandatory indication of the country of origin or place of provenance for meat used as an ingredient, foreseen in Article 26 6 of the FIC Regulation. The present Staff Working Document is largely based on the findings of that study. It also takes into account relevant findings from the impact assessment underpinning the mandatory indication of origin for prepacked unprocessed meat of swine, poultry, sheep and goats as well as other available information.
The present Staff Working Document concerns only prepacked foods with meat used as an ingredient. In the EU, meat in general is sold pre-packed.
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It covers meat ingredients of all species, i. Foods with meat used as an ingredient and placed on the EU market, are quite varied. In broad terms, three categories of such foods in an increasing order 202 processing can be identified: This category is closer to unprocessed meat in the food chain. Lek multi-ingredient xe with meat used as an ingredient include foods where meat is the primary ingredient, e. This category is the farthest from unprocessed meat in the food chain. The present Staff Working Document explores the possibility to extend mandatory origin labelling for meat of all species used as an ingredient in prepacked foods, taking into account the following:.
It presents an estimation of the frequency of changing supply sources and mixing meat of different sources by the food industry for the purposes of foods with meat ingredients. ,ei also explores the adequacy of existing traceability systems to support the possible introduction of mandatory origin labelling for meat used as an ingredient. The focus is on the consumers’ interest, understanding and preferences in relation to information on origin, to different types of origin labelling of meat ingredients as well as on consumers’ willingness to pay more for the provision of eli information; and.
The EU food sector represents a total turnover of EUR billion with approximatelycompanies employing 4. It is the largest EU manufacturing sector in terms lel turnover, value added and employment. The net trade balance was EUR However, while the food sector is big in size, combining several important sub-sectors e.
The EU meat processing industry represents more than 13, companies, which generate an estimated EUR 85 billion in turnover and employs aboutpeople. The meat supply chain of meat to be used as an ingredient is both highly heterogeneous in actors involved as well as in products: The processed meat sector is characterised by a significant share of small and medium-size enterprises “SMEs”.
Regarding products, it can range from relatively simple, e. Moreover, the supply chain of meat used as an ingredient is quite complex, involving several steps in production and marketing of the final products. In the EU, the consumption of meat is expected to decrease in total by 0. Only poultry meat has shown signs of growth throughout the year and is therefore expected to increase further 2. When focusing on the beef meat sector, the firm beef meat prices in cause per capita consumption to continue to decrease, albeit at a slower rate.
Nevertheless, improvement 2002 the economic situation of most EU countries 200 slightly more meat supplies in could stabilize consumption at For pig meat, firm prices and limited supply are expected to ed to a decrease in both consumption and exports in Projected lower cereal prices leei the assumed good harvest are expected to help increase production and stabilise consumption in Lastly, the total consumption of sheep meat in is likely to increase after several years of continuous decline thanks to higher availabilities implying relatively lower prices in Untila further increase mainly in developing countries by an extra 3,6 kg of meat per capita compared to the base period is expected.
This increase will mostly be in poultry meat. The ve prices of meat will not discourage the developing countries to increase their imports, increase driven mainly by population and income growth expected in years to come.
In that respect, the bulk of EU imports for processing is accounted by a handful of suppliers, with Brazil and Thailand being the leading exporters to the EU for poultry and beef. Imports of pig meat and sheep meat from third countries for processing are virtually non-existent.
InEU total fresh meat production was After this reduction, total meat production is projected to steadily recover kei the ten year horizon and to reach almost 45 million tonnes inapproximately the same lek recorded in .
Characterised by a high level of specialisation, these SMEs operate independently at different stages of the supply chain. This is particularly the case for the pig meat and beef meat sectors. Larger vertically dr companies represent a d share of all companies operating llei the EU meat processing industry and tend to be more prevalent in the poultry sector. Share of micro-enterprises in total number of enterprises in EU MS by sub-sectors . Meat processors tend to procure raw material mainly from traders.
Indeed, unprocessed standard quality meat ingredients, such as pig meat, which is the predominant ingredient in EU processed products, is generally sold on spot markets. Due to the characteristics of the EU meat processing sector, including the increase in the level of homogeneity of raw material in the meat ce, there seems to be limited demand from processors for origin information on meat ingredients.
Indeed, there is no demand for origin information with respect to re-composed products e. The product sectors using trimmings are quite extensive.
Even when trimmings or blending of raw materials is not involved prior to the arrival at the processing plant, origin labelling may still be a challenge due to the extent of the mix of suppliers. According to the Italian processed meat industry ASSICA ce, even though Italian products such as pancetta and dried ham do not involve mixing of different meat ingredients, in practice they do have a continuous mix of source of suppliers.
Producers of multi-ingredient foods with meat ingredients procure raw materials for their products from a wide-range of suppliers along the food chain, e. 110410 operators do not have enough bargaining power to impose the indication of origin to their suppliers, as the quantities supplied are 1041 small compared to other key buyers e. Slaughterhouses and meat cutting plants are key actors with respect to passing meat origin information to the next player in the food lwi.
Moreover, the higher the degree of vertical integration and the larger the company size is, the easier it is to ensure that origin information is passed along the food chain. However, because of this structure of the supply chain mostly independent SME companies operating in the meat sector and the absence of any significant ‘business-to-business’ interest in this information 01410 explained above, the transmission of origin information tends to stop at the earlier stages of the supply chain slaughterhouses and cutting plants.
In earlya special survey was conducted through the Enterprise European Network EEN for the purposes of the Commission report on the possibility to extend mandatory origin labelling to meat used as an ingredient. The main findings concerning the structure of the sector can be summarised as follows:.
Current application of origin labelling to meat and meat-based products — Overview of voluntary schemes.
Where such schemes exist, they tend to be mostly dd and are not related only to geographical origin labelling but form part of a wider quality initiative. Only Austria indicated it had a national scheme, while some MSs have private schemes in place which in fe cases are supported by the public sector or may be implemented in the framework of national legislation. These schemes considered to account dd a significant part of the market in only a few MSs and if so, it tends to be for the specific species and meat products covered by 110410 scheme.
Analysis of the uptake of such schemes demonstrates that a key constraining factor for consumers is the fact that these products are sold at a price premium. Single sourcing practices for foods with meat used as an ingredient are limited, if not negligible. This means that different stages of the production of foods containing meat as an ingredient often take place in different EU Member States ‘MSs and there is significant intra-Union trade of meat-related raw materials.
The frequency of changes in the mix of suppliers ee affected by the same factors as sourcing patterns. The differentiation of sources in particular is a common strategy to reduce the risk of delivery failure driven by external factors e.
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FBOs, and especially SMEs, tend to change their suppliers three or more times per year, in order to guarantee an adequate level of raw material at an affordable price. Food traceability is the ability to track any food, food producing animal or substance that may be destined for human consumption through all stages of production, processing and distribution of foods. For the proper application and enforcement of origin labelling, an effective traceability system is required to ensure the passing of the origin information along the food chain.
The EU traceability legislation aims at ensuring food safety. The traceability requirements can be summarised as follows: To this end, FBOs must have in place systems and procedures that allow for this information to be made available to the CAs on demand.