The relationships among the firms comprising the Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park form an industrial symbiosis. Generally. Read chapter The Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg, Denmark: Industrial ecology is a concept that has emerged in response to growing public concern about. The Solution: by working together and exchanging material, water, and energy streams between the partners, Kalundborg Symbiosis increases resilience and.

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Place your marker on a number or a name, to read more about the companys and streams 1. The green pipes have become the symbol of the industrial symbiosis and is the most visible sign that the companies in the symbiosis are connected. In time, the steam for the Kalundborg Symbiosis has become a main product and electricity a byproduct. This development shows that industrial symbioses, over time, can advance new business models.

At Novozymes and Novo Nordisk, the steam is used for a variety of purposes, including cleaning, sterilization and distillation.

Novozymes produces biogas from the process water, from the production at both Novozymes and Novo Nordisk, since the process water contains many nutrients. The biogas fuels a large engine and generator, which delivers 47, MWh per year. This is equivalent to the consumption of around 12, Danish households. The excess heat from the large gas engine is utilized locally on-site for heating. This way the use of fossil fuels for both electricity and heat production is negated. Therefore, the temperature is reduced to about degrees.

Some of the warm condensate is also used to preheat fresh water for local steam production, so that the water temperature rises from 10 to 90 degrees.

Thus, steam production requires kalundbogr energy. District heating is common practice in Denmark. More than 60 percent of Danish households are heated by district heating. This is sent to Kalundborg Utility, who then distributes it to citizens and companies. In addition to receiving district heating from Kalundborg Utility, Novo Nordisk and Novozymes utilize part of the klaundborg heat that is generated from their own production. The utilization of the excess heat happens locally, on-site, and means that the heat production uses less resources.

Kalundborg Utility is responsible for the final purification of the waste water from the companies in the Kalundborg Symbiosis, but before that, several of the partners have cleaned and treated the waste themselves, so it complies with the kalundvorg requirements.

Even though these flows are indicated with the same number, the term covers several different types and qualities of process and wastewater from the companies. Some types of wastewater run in separate pipes, so the purification process can be done optimally and with the lowest possible energy use.

Before being discharged into the environment, the purified wastewater from Kalundborg Utility is run through a heat exchanger at the heat pump. Here part of the heat in the wastewater is utilized for district heat production.

The Novozymes Wastewater and Biogas plant is where the first part of the purification of process water from the production in Novozymes and Novo Nordisk happens. Hereafter the water is led to the final purification at Kalundborg Utility. The entire process is highly benefited by the fact that wastewater and process water from Novozymes and Novo Nordisk always is around 20 degrees.

This means that the bacteria cleaning the water is faster, more efficient and with a lower energy consumption. This wat, the excess heat in the water helps saving resources. This is also known as demineralized water, as all minerals and salts has been removed to avoid breaking internal parts of the steam turbines, boilers and the heat pipes. It all ends up at Novozymes, where the cleaned surface water is used directly in their production of industrial enzymes.

This saves drinking water and conserves groundwater reserves. Furthermore Novozymes can reduce one of the production costs significantly, being that cleaned surface water is far cheaper than drinking water. Argo recieves waste from Kalundborg Utility as well as the other partners of the Kalundborg Symbiosis. The recyclable waste is sorted into fractions and subsequently disposed of to the recycling industry.


A large part of the walls and ceilings in homes, companies and offices are covered with gypsum produced at Gyproc in Kalundborg, part of the Saint Gobain Group. This industrial gypsum is usable for Gyproc in the production of new gypsum borads. Gyproc thus provides a stable supply of local produce ready at hand, and much cheaper than natural gypsum. In addition, the gypsum has already been crushed. This is a classic example of good economy, resource optimization and increased robustness of companies in an industrial symbiosis.

The fly ash is used as an ingredient for cement. A lot symboisis the concrete we see every day contains fly ash. In fact, the fly ash can help strengthen the concrete. Equinor Refining Denmark removes sulfor from the oil and converts the sulfur into ammonium thiosulfate ATS that boost the growth of plants. Instead of contaminating the air by burning the sulfur has become a valuable resource sold to the large fertilizer companies in Denmark.

ATS is a liquid fertilizer, making it easier for the farmers to dose the amount and thus fertilize more efficiently. ATS causes the plants to absorb the Sulphur and other nutrients better, which leads to less evaporation of nitrogen.

So, instead of becoming acid and damaging rain, the sulphur is channeled to the right crops as a booster for their growth. Novo Nordisk produces insulin through a fermentation process, where yeast cells grow primarily on sugar and vitamins. When the fermentation process is finalized, and insulin is fractionated out, a nutritional mixture called yeast slurry kalundbrog retained. This fraction is send to a biogas plant for gasification, resulting in a production of biogas that is upgraded to natural kaludborg quality and a production of fertilizers.

The Kalundborg Utility treats the wastewater from homes and companies and collects a large amount of sand from the wastewater in their sand traps. The sand consists of different sizes of pebbles and gravel and is excellent as filling for digging jobs. All sand used for work like this is rinsed, sanitized and checked to make sure it meets the requirements to be reused as filling.

When Kalundborg Utility treats the wastewater from homes and companies, one of the residues is sludge. Part of this sludge is delivered to farmers for fertilizer, as the sludge contains nutrients. Before leaving the treatment plant at Kalundborg Utility, the sludge is sanitized and checked, to make sure it is usable for all types of farm land and private gardens. So, symbiossi of being a problem, the sludge is exploited and displaces the use of commercial fertilizer.

NovoGro is not only a waste product to dispose when Novo and Novozymes are done letting kalunbdorg yeasts eat off their biomass and produce enzymes and medications like insulin. It is also a highly valued fertilizer.

Because of this ability, many farmers — and especially beet farmers — are very interested inthis type of fertilizer, in order to kakundborg the higher yield. Also, this prevents using natures own minerals and resources, and it becomes part of the circle of life, zymbiosis once again ending up in the ground.

Ethanol is part of certain processes when the insulin is produced at Novo Nordisk. A large part of the ethanol can be regenerated. Part of the non-regeneratable ethanol is sent to the biogas plant at Novozymes Wastewater and Biogas.

Here the residues are converted into biogas.

Industrial symbiosis in Kalundborg | Nordregio

Kalundborg Utility also receives residues containing ethanol, which help the processes in their cleaning plants, including the removal of nitrogen from the wastewater. Ka-lundborg Utility also receives residues containing ethanol, which help the processes in their cleaning plants, including the removal of nitrogen from the wastewater.

When Novozymes has finished letting yeast cells eat some of this biomass, the remains contain a lot of nutrients. The remains represent the largest part of their NovoGro 30 production, which takes place in Novozymes Wastewater and Biogas department, which also accounts for wastewater treatment and biogas production.


Power to grid 3. Cleaned waste water 8. Used cooling water This is made possible via a 12 kilometer long pipeline, which was established in by a public-private partnership between the refinery and Kalundborg Municipality. It was the first step towards the successful symbiosis partnership that has now existed in Kalundborg for over 50 years.

It is where the biggest North European Viking settlements where located, and the place was a trading hub with international contacts. It is unknown whether the legend is still true, but the companies that utilizes the water have definitely not been unlucky.

ARGO is a stakeholder owned waste management company and has a total of employees, 13 of which are located in Kalundborg, where ARGO operates recycling centers for Kalundborg Municipality. Here the waste is divided into fractions and recycled and reused as much as possible.

The remainder is used for electricity and heat production. This way the Kalundborg Symbiosis gives Gyproc access to local raw materials of a high quality at a compe-tetive price. Gyproc develops innovative, market leading and sustainable solutions with a focus on increasing demands for energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction.

Many walls and ceilings in Denmark and the rest of the world are covered with plasterboards from Gyproc, where part of the gypsum is a residual which has become a resource for Gyproc in Kalundborg, which has around employees. Kalundborg Utility extracts and delivers surface water and cleansed surface water to the partners of the Kalundborg Symbiosis.

Kalundborg Utility processes wastewater for both the industry, companies and households in Kalundborg Municipality, as well as deliver potable water and district heating to companies and households in Kalundborg City.

Kalundborg Utility has 70 employees and plays a central role in the utilization of waterborne resources in the Kalundborg Symbiosis and are part of several new projects. For example, Kalundborg Utility is working on utilizing the residual heat in the process and wastewater from Novozymes and Novo Nordisk, which is always around 20 degrees Celcius.

That leftover heat can be utilized in the district heating grid by using heat pumps. Read more about Kalundborg Utility here. The steam is delivered to partners in the Kalundborg Symbiosis and in the plant itself, the steam is used to drive turbines which, with the help of big generators, produce electricity for the power grid.

Industrial symbiosis in Kalundborg

The residual heat from that production is utilized as district heating for households and companies in Kalundborg City. Equinor in Kalundborg is the largest refinery in Denmark and the only one in the world, where the residual sulfur from the desulphurisation plant is converted to liquid and high-efficiency fertilizer.

The Kalundborg Symbiosis provides Equinor with easy access to steam for process purposes, cooling and surface water, as well as various types of specialized water. Read more about Equinor here. This is where water and energy flows for both companies are distributed. A total of 28 million patients worldwide use the insulin, that starts its journey in one of the production facilities in Kalundborg.

The insulin is kqlundborg from a basic material, which is produced using fermentation processes. The microorganisms in the fermentation tank are fueled primarily by sugars, vitamins, and other micronutrients.

This type and size of production has big demands in terms of water and energy, which means that Novo Nordisk benefits greatly from being part of the Kalundborg Symbiosis, where there is easy access to energy and water, as well as good opportunities to develop the production to make it even more sustainable.

Novo Nordisk also contributes by utilizing symbosis heat and residual fractions for example for fertilizers and the production of biogas.

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