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Public student int r,String snm,String cim c,int sm,String fnm. Last date of Submission: Answer both the questions. These questions carry 40 marks. Rest 10 marks are for viva-voce. Please go through the guidelines regarding the assignments given in the programme guide for the format of presentation.
This class should have functions to find the sum and difference of two matrices. However, when I compiled the ignoujuhaad, lots of errors are displayed std:: The program must run like this:. Input imaginary part for operand one: Input imaginary part for operand two: You may take dividing by zero as a case of.
So what exactly do those terms mean? Keep reading to find out as I compare structured and object oriented programming in this article. This style of programming is characterized by the programmers tendency to divide his program source code into logically structured blocks which would normally consist of conditional statements, loops and logic blocks.
This style of programming has the implementation of the source code being processed in the order in which bits of the code have prpject typed in. In other terms, object-oriented programming can be prlject as the process of using several classes to represent different areas of functionality or data objects within your software application. These data objects have data fields and functions that act on the data fields. The hold three main characteristics which are encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.
Examples of objects would projext windows, menus, text inputs, icons, etc. There must be procedures to manipulate them. The first panel in light blue shows the source code for our first program.
The second one in light gray shows the result of the program once compiled and executed. To the left, the grey numbers represent the line numbers — these are not part of the program, and are shown here merely for informational purposes. The way to edit and compile a program depends on the compiler you are using. Depending on whether it has a Development Interface or not and on its version.
We are going to look line by line at the code we have just written:. This is a comment line. The programmer can use them to include short explanations or observations within the source code itself. In this case, the line is a brief description of what our program is.
Lines beginning with a hash sign are directives for the preprocessor.
So in order to access its functionality we declare with this expression that we will be using these entities.
This line corresponds to the beginning of the definition of the main function. The word main is followed in the code by a pair of parentheses. That is because it is a function declaration: Optionally, these parentheses may enclose a list of parameters within them. What is contained within these braces is what the function does when it is executed. A statement is a simple or compound expression that can actually produce some effect. In fact, this statement performs the only action that generates a visible effect in our first program.
Notice that the statement ends with a semicolon character. The return statement causes the main function to finish. The sizeof operator can be used to get the size of classes, structures, unions and any other user defined data type. Where data type is the desired data type including classes, structures, unions and any other user defined data type. This chapter will examine the arithmetic, relational, logical, bitwise, assignment and other operators one by one.
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C Scope resolution operator: You can use the unary scope operator synopsks a namespace scope or global scope name is hidden by an snopsis declaration of proejct same name in a block or class.
The declaration of count declared in the main function hides the integer named count declared in global namespace scope. You can also use the class scope operator to qualify class names or class member names. If a class member name is hidden, you can use it by qualifying it with its class name and the class scope operator. In the following example, the declaration of the variable X hides the class type X, but you ignoujuaad still use the static class member count by qualifying it with the class type X and the scope resolution operator.
Use appropriate access control specifiers in this program. Using the method of encapsulation, the programmer cannot directly access the data. Data is only accessible. Data encapsulation led to the important concept of data hiding. Data hiding is the implementation details.
The concept of restricted access led programmers to write specialized functions or methods for performing the. Attention must be paid to ensure. There are two primary. First, there are some cases where the assignment operator. Second, there are some issues in dealing with dynamically allocated memory which we will cover in the next.
Before we go into the static keyword as applied to member variables, first consider the following class:. What are different forms of polymorphism? Typically, polymorphism occurs when there is a hierarchy of classes and they are related by inheritance.
Explain advantages of using friend function with the help of an example. Even though the prototypes for friend functions appear in the class definition, friends are not member functions. A friend can be a function, function template, or member function, or a class or class template, in which case the entire class and all of its members are friends.
Explain the following functions for manipulating file pointers, with the help of example program:. Finally, it destroys the sentry object before returning. If the input sequence runs out of characters to extract i. Then, if member fail returns true, the function returns What is an exception? How an exception is different from an error? Note that an exceptional circumstance is not necessarily an error. When a function detects an exceptional situation, you represent this with an object.
This passes control, as well as the exception, to a designated block of code in a direct or indirect caller of the function that threw the exception. In a handler, you specify the types of exceptions that it may process. A template is a blueprint or formula for creating a generic class or a function. The library containers like iterators and algorithms are examples of generic programming and have been developed using template concept.
What are different types of inheritance? Explain advantages of using inheritance. Inheritance allows us to define a class in terms of another class, which makes it easier to create and maintain an application. This also provides an opportunity to reuse the code functionality and fast implementation time.
When creating a class, instead of writing completely new data members and member functions, the programmer can designate that the new class should inherit the members of an existing class.
A class can be derived from more than one classes, which means it can inherit data and functions from multiple base classes. To define a derived class, we use a class derivation list to specify the base class es.
A class derivation list names one or more base classes and has the form:. Clearly indicate the ignoujugaar, relationships, cardinality and the key constraints. The description of the environment is as follows:.
Explain them with the help of an example for each. Using group by, synnopsis can create groups of related information. In the below example we are trying to display sum of salaries at each dept level. When SQL statement is run, data fetched from the database is grouped first based on deptno and then sum function is applied to get the desired result.
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Having clause is just like where clause but it can be used only with group by as we cannot use where clause in group by. Having clause works or can be used, only in the combination with group by clause. Choose and eliminate the groups based on the having clause.
Order the groups based on the specified column. What are the advantages of indexed-sequential file organisation?
With the help of an example explain the structure of indexed-sequential file. When there is need to access records sequentially by some key value and also synopsi access records directly by the same key value, the collection of records may be organized in an effective manned called Indexes Sequential Organization.