Gulistan by Shaykh Saadi, Farsi with Urdu translation – Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. Translated in Urdu by Maulana Qazi. Gulistan, also transliterated as Golestan (Pashto/Persian: گلستان), is a district in Farah Province, Afghanistan. Its population, which is approximately 80%. Gulistan or Golestan or Golastan (Persian: گلستان) is a Persian word and means “The Rose . Languages. العربية · Català · Cebuano · Esperanto · فارسی · Italiano · مازِرونی · 日本語 · Polski · Русский · Svenska · Türkçe · Українська · Edit links.
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The peace negotiations were precipitated by Lankaran’s fall to Gen. Pyotr Kotlyarevsky gulkstan 1 January The text was prepared by the British diplomat Sir Gore Ouseley who served as the mediator and wielded great influence at the Persian court.
Imperial Russia had just sworn in a new tsar, Alexander I, in and the empire was very eager to control neighboring territories as the tsar was determined to expand.
Mohammad had, during his reign, killed off all of his enemies in the regions of present-day Georgia gulidtan Azerbaijan and claimed the areas to rightfully belong to Persia.
Simultaneously, Russia had formally annexed the region of Georgia, allowing unrestricted travel and trade between the regions and Russia, furthering its public claim on the land.
Gulistan (book) – Wikipedia
Persia was trying to align with France in to better position itself in case of war with Russia, yet those attempts fell through. Ironically, as both Russia and Britain were currently engaged in the Napoleonic wars, Fath Ali Shah instead brokered a deal with Britain that provided Persia with military support from Indian-British troops in exchange for preventing any European country from entering India. With the alliance, Persia entered into the first Russo-Persian War against a militarily pre-occupied Russia, which was heavily invested in the Napoleonic Wars.
Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war: However, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained – a problem that the Persian government did not recognize until a far later juncture. Despite these crippling disadvantages, fighting continued in northern Persia, Azerbaijan and in regions of Georgia. Persia was so enraged at Russia as to declare a jihad upon them, demanding that its people unite to fight the war against them.
The Battle of Aslanduz on 31 October was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan. All the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia, including all the villages and towns on the coast of the Black Sea, such as: Almost all the cities, towns and villages of the khanates in South Caucasus, including: Baku khanate now capital of Azerbaijan Republic8.
Iran loses all rights to navigate the Caspian Sea, and Russia is granted exclusive rights to station its military fleet in the Caspian Sea. Both countries agree on the establishment of free trade, with Farrsi having free access to conduct business anywhere in Iran.
Even until today, Iran officially sees this and the succeeding Treaty of Turkmenchay as one of its most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen as one of Iran’s most incompetent rulers fagsi memory. Farai treaty did not answer vital questions such as whether the Persian army would be disarmed or be able to regroup. The war was becoming costly in terms of troops and finance, so the Treaty of Gulistan led to over a decade of nominal peace between Russia and Persia, mainly for the clause regarding trade: Permanent diplomatic missions were set up in Persia as well as Russia in order to gulistn trade open as long as possible.
It was a period of tense stability, though, as both countries understood that the treaty was written vulistan vaguely and that nothing was written about provisions to the military mainly to prevent Persia from trying to regain the regions of Georgia or the Caucasus, thus greatly leaving open the possibility of another future war.
As another result of Persia’s losses to Russia, the two treaties of Gulistan and Gulistsn also divided Azerbaijani and Talysh people from their brethren in Iran and the wider Iranian cultural world. The Treaty of Gulistan was leaving conflict open between the two countries, thus being weak from the start.
After the Treaty of Gulistan was signed, Persia started to rapidly build up its army once more, as Fath Ali Shah was fully devoted to regaining the territories lost in the war. It was surprising to no one when Fath Ali Shah ordered his military commander, Abbas Mirza to start tulistan troops inthree years in advance of the second Russo-Persian War, which was three times as much military preparation than he spent for the first Russo-Persian War.
Gulistan Saadi Shirzi Persian Text English Translation