Alternative Names/Transliterations: Johann Jakob Froberger, Giacomo Frobergue Name in Other Languages: Johann Jakob Froberger, 요한 야콥 프로 베르거. Johann Jakob Froberger () – Gigue June 27, This is an absolutely beautiful baroque song and is one of the reasons why I continued studying. Johann Jacob Froberger: The Strasbourg Manuscript: Fourteen Suites. Froberger may at first have regarded gigues as less essential to a suite than other.

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Johann Jakob Froberger baptized 19 May — 7 May was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuosoand organist. Among the most famous composers of the era, he was influential in developing the musical form of the suite of dances in his keyboard works. His harpsichord pieces are highly idiomatic and programmatic.

Only two of Froberger’s many compositions were published during his lifetime. Johann Jakob Froberger was baptized on 19 May fronerger Stuttgart.

The exact date of his birth is unknown. His family came from Hallewhere his grandfather Simon lived [1] and his father Basilius — was born.

At some point before he married Anna Schmid —who came from a Schwabian family living in Stuttgart. By the time Johann Jakob was born, his father’s career was already flourishing, and in Basilius became court Kapellmeister. Although the Thirty Years’ War which started in undoubtedly made life in Stuttgart somewhat more difficult, the city’s musical life was rich and varied, influenced by musicians from all over Europe, so already at the very beginning of his life Froberger must have been exposed to a wide variety of musical traditions.

Little is known about his actual education, though. His teachers possibly included Johann Ulrich Steiglederand he might have met Samuel Scheidt during the latter’s visit to Stuttgart in ; it is possible that Froberger sang in the court chapel, but there is no direct evidence to that; and court archives indicate that one of the English lutenists employed by the court, Andrew Borell, taught lute to one of Basilius Froberger’s sons in —22 [1] — it is not known whether this son was Johann Jakob, but if so, it would explain his later interest in French lute music.

Basilius Froberger’s music library probably also helped in Johann Jakob’s education. It contained more than a hundred volumes of music, including works by Josquin des Prez[3] Samuel Scheidt and Michael Praetoriusas well as pieces by the lesser known Johann Stadenfounder of the Nuremberg school, and Giovanni Valentinithe then-famous Viennese Kapellmeister who later taught Johann Kaspar Kerll.

In Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte Mattheson writes that a certain Swedish ambassador was so impressed with Froberger’s musical skills that he took the year-old musician to Vienna and presumably recommended him to the imperial court. In Basilius Froberger, his wife and one of his daughters died of plague.

In June he was granted a leave and a stipend to go to Rome to study under Frescobaldi. Froberger spent the next three years in Italy and, like many other musicians who went to study there, apparently converted to Catholicism.

He returned to Vienna in and served as organist and chamber musician until the fall ofwhen he took a second trip to Italy. It was previously thought that Froberger went to study under Giacomo Carissimibut recent research shows that he most probably studied with Athanasius Kircher in Rome. Sometime during —49 Froberger might have met Johann Kaspar Kerlland possibly taught him. In Froberger travelled back to Austria. On his way back he stopped in Florence and Mantua to show the arca musurgicaa powerful compositional device Kircher taught him, to some of the Italian princes.

In September he arrived in Vienna and demonstrated the arca musurgica to the Emperoran avid amateur musician; he also presented him with Libro Secondoa collection of his own compositions the Libro Primo is now lost. Following the Empress Maria Leopoldine ‘s death in August the court’s musical activities were suspended.

Froberger left the city and travelled widely for the next four years, likely entrusted by the Emperor with some extra-musical duties in the fields of diplomacy and possibly espionage as for example John Dowland and Peter Paul Rubens were doing during their travels. Not much is known about these voyages. Dresden was probably one of the very first cities Froberger visited: He also met Matthias Weckmann while in Dresden, and this encounter turned to another lifelong friendship; the two continued to exchange letters and Froberger even sent some of his music to Weckmann to illustrate his style.


In November Froberger witnessed the death of the famed lutenist Blancrocher who was his friend and reportedly died in his arms. Although Blancrocher himself was not an important composer, [6] his death left a mark on the history of music, as Couperin, Gaultier, Dufaut and Froberger all wrote tombeaux lamenting the event.

He remained with the Viennese court during the next four years, producing at least one more collection of music, the Libro Quarto of Libro Terzo is now lost. Froberger was apparently deeply saddened by Emperor Ferdinand III ‘s death on 2 April and wrote a lamentation dedicated to the memory of the Emperor.

Little is known about Froberger’s last 10 years. The Huygens-Sybilla letters indicate that in Froberger travelled to Mainz, where he performed at the court of the Elector-Archbishop of Mainz and met Huygens in person for the first time; and at a certain point in the composer had plans to return to the imperial court in Vienna. Froberger apparently knew that he was going to die soon, as he made all necessary preparations a day before he died. Only two compositions by Froberger were published during his lifetime: In addition to these, a comparatively large number of works are preserved in authenticated manuscripts.

The three principal sources for Froberger’s music are the following manuscripts:.

Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music

Also, in an autograph manuscript was discovered and subsequently sold at Sotheby’sreportedly containing 35 pieces of music, froerger of which were previously unknown. The manuscript dates vroberger Froberger’s final years and may contain his last compositions. Problems arise with many of the newly discovered copies: Froberger is usually credited as the creator of the Baroque suite.

While this may be misleading, French composers of the time did group dance pieces by tonality above all, [9] and while other composers such as Kindermann did try to invent some kind of organisation, their dances did not attain as high a degree of artistic merit as seen in Froberger’s suites. The typical Froberger suite established allemandecourantesarabande and gigue as the obligatory parts of a suite.

However, there is some controversy surrounding the placement of the gigue. In Froberger’s earliest authenticated autograph, Libro Secondofive out of six suites frpberger in three movements, without the gigue.

A single suite, no. The suites of Libro Quarto all have gigues as the 2nd movement. The order that became the standard after Froberger’s death, with the gigue being the last movement, first appeared in a s print of Froberfer works by the Amsterdam publisher Frooberger. In some of the sources such markings are particularly abundant, and the newly discovered Berlin Sing-Akademie SA manuscript adds similar indications to free sections in organ toccatas.

Apart from the suites, Froberger also wrote titled, descriptive pieces for the harpsichord some of the suites incorporate such works as their first movement.

He was one of the earliest composers to produce such programmatic pieces. Such pieces include the following in alphabetical order:. These works frequently feature musical metaphors: Froberger would often supply such works with an explanation, sometimes very detailed see illustrationof the events that led to the composition of the piece.

For instance, the Allemande, faite en passat le Rhin contains 26 numbered passages with explanation for each; the Blancrocher tombeau features a written preface in which the circumstances of the lutenist’s death are recounted, etc.

The structure and style of Froberger’s programmatic works, as well as his allemandes, contributed to the development of the unmeasured prelude through the efforts of Louis Couperin.

List of compositions by Johann Jakob Froberger – Wikipedia

The rest of Froberger’s keyboard works may be performed on any keyboard instrument, including the organ. The toccatas are the only ones to employ free writing to some degree; the froberber are strictly polyphonic.

In terms of organisation, Froberger’s toccatas are reminiscent of those by Michelangelo Rossialso a student of Frescobaldi ; instead of being composed of numerous brief parts, they feature a few tightly woven sections, alternating between strict polyphony and free, improvisational passages. They are usually of moderate length and the harmonic content is not dissimilar to Frescobaldi’s, although Froberger’s harmony favors softer, more pleasing turns [12] not without some notable exceptions, particularly in the two Da gkgue alla Levatione worksand his toccatas are always more focused on the original tonality, unlike those by either Frescobaldi or Rossi.


The fugal sections are present in most toccatas and are quasi-imitative and are not as strict as later 17th century fugues; when a toccata features several fugal inserts, a single motif may be used for all of them, varied rhythmically.

Whereas in Frescobaldi’s oeuvre the fantasia and the ricercare are markedly frobergr genres the fantasia being a relatively simple contrapuntal composition that expands, giguee it progresses, into a flurry of intense, rhythmically complex counterpoint; the gogue being essentially a very strict contrapuntal piece with easily audible lines and somewhat archaic in terms of structureFroberger’s are practically similar.

A typical Froberger ricercare or fantasia uses a single subject with different rhythmic variations for different sections throughout the whole piece, and the counterpoint adheres almost flawlessly to the 16th century prima pratica. Any of the standard contrapuntal devices may be used; the main subject is sometimes paired with another theme for a section or two, and there is usually a marked contrast between sections and giggue variety inside a single piece.

Froberger’s canzonas and capriccios are similarly gigye in terms of technique, and they too are essentially the same even though Frescobaldi distinguished between the genres. Froberger follows Frescobaldi’s example in constructing these pieces as variation sets in several sections usually three in canzonas and any number — as many as six — in capriccios. The subjects are always faster, much more lively that those of ricercares and fantasias.

A characteristic feature is the economy of themes: The counterpoint and harmony are very similar to the ricercares and fantasias; however, occasionally scale degrees other than 1 and 5 are used.

Category:Froberger, Johann Jacob

The only surviving non-keyboard works by Froberger foberger two motetsAlleluia! Absorpta es mors and Apparuerunt apostolis. The manuscript is kept in the Uppsala University library. These motets are quite similar in style: Although only two of Froberger’s works were published during his lifetime, his music was widely spread in Europe in hand-written copies, and he was one of the most famous composers of the era although he studied in Italy and obviously had friends and former mentors there, no Italian sources of his music were found.

Because of his travels and his ability to absorb various national styles and incorporate them into his music, Froberger, along with other cosmopolitan composers such as Johann Kaspar Kerll and Georg Muffatcontributed greatly to the exchange of musical traditions in Europe.

Furthermore, copies in Mozart ‘s hand of the Hexachord Fantasia survive, and even Gigye knew Froberger’s work through Albrechtsberger ‘s teachings. The profound influence on Louis Couperin made Froberger partially responsible for the change Couperin brought into the French organ tradition as well as for the development of the unmeasured preludewhich Couperin cultivated.

Johann Jakob Froberger

Although the polyphonic pieces were highly esteemed in the 17th and 18th centuries, today Froberger is chiefly remembered for his froberter to the development of the keyboard suite.

Indeed, he established the form almost single-handedly and, through innovative and imaginative treatment of standard dance forms of the time, paved the way for Johann Sebastian Bach giigue elaborate contributions to the genre not to mention almost every major composer in Europe, since the vast majority composed suites and were influenced by the “French style” exemplified by Froberger.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of compositions by Johann Jakob Froberger. Performed on a clavichord by Joan Benson.

Performed ffoberger an Italian harpsichord by Martha Goldstein. A Link between the Renaissance and the Baroque”. The Musical Times, Vol. Stuttgarter Verlagkontor, Stuttgartp.

See [1] for a complete list. Archived from the original on Routledgesecond edition, p. Preface to “Johann Jakob Froberger: Retrieved from ” https: Views Read Edit View history.

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