Design Guide CISC. R.A. MacCrimmon. Acres International Niagara Falls, Ontario. GUIDE FOR THE DESIGN OF CRANE-SUPPORTING STEEL STRUCTURES. The CISC supports and actively participates in the work of the Standards Council of The scope of this design guide includes crane-supporting steel structures. CSA S Design of Steel Structures, CSA S CISC Guide for the Design of Crane-Supporting Steel Structures 2nd Edition, CISC Crane Guide.

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This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Formed in and granted a Federal fabricated steel in construction.

As a member of the Canadian Steel Construction Council, the Institute has a general interest in all uses of steel in construction. The CISC supports and actively participates in the work of the Standards Council of Canada, the Canadian Standards Association, the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and numerous other organizations, in Canada and other countries, involved in research work and the preparation of codes and standards.


Preparation of engineering plans is not a function of the CISC. The Institute does provide technical information through its professional engineering staff, through the preparation and dissemination of publications, and through the medium of seminars, courses, meetings, video tapes, and computer programs. Architects, engineers and others interested in steel construction are encouraged to make use of CISC information services.

This publication has been prepared and published by the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction.

It is an important part of a continuing effort to provide current, practical, information to assist educators, designers, fabricators, and others interested in the use of steel in construction. Although no effort has been spared in an attempt to ensure that all data in this book is factual and that the numerical values are accurate to a degree consistent with current structural design practice, the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, the author and his employer, Hatch, do not assume responsibility for errors or oversights resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

Anyone making use of the contents of this book assumes all liability arising from such use. All suggestions for improvement of this publication will receive full consideration for future printings. Future revisions to this Design Guide will be posted on this website.

Users are encouraged to visit this website periodically for updates. Important changes in this area are included, most notably in the Chapters 4, 5 and 6, Design and Construction Measures Checklist, Other Topics, and Rehabilitation and Upgrades References have been added and updated.

The author wishes to thank all those who took the time to comment and provide suggestions. Special thanks to the late David Ricker reference 27 who took the time to constructively comment in depth, providing a number of suggestions which have been incorporated into this edition. Previous editions of these detail. While many references are available as given herein, they do not cover loads and load combinations for limit guide provides information on how to apply the current Canadian Codes and Standards to aspects of design of crane-supporting structures such as loads, load combinations, repeated loads, notional loads, mono-symmetrical sections, analysis for torsion, stepped columns, and distortion-induced fatigue.

The purpose of this design guide is twofold: To provide the owner and the designer with a practical set of guidelines, design aids, and references that can be applied when designing or assessing the condition of crane-supporting steel structures. To provide examples of design of key components of crane-supporting structures in accordance with: The scope of this design guide includes crane-supporting steel structures regardless of the type of crane.

The interaction of the crane and its supporting structure is addressed. The design of the crane itself, including jib such as those published by the CMAA. Design and construction of foundations is beyond the scope of this document but loads, load combinations, information see Fisher Design for fatigue is often not required for Classes A and B but is not excluded from consideration. The symbols and notations of S are followed unless otherwise noted. Welding symbols are generally in accordance with CSA W The recommendations of this guide may not cover all design measures.

It is the responsibility of the designer of the crane-supporting structure to consider such measures. Comments for future editions are welcome. The author wishes to acknowledge the help and advice of Hatch, for corporate support and individual assistance of colleagues too numerous to mention individually, all those who have offered suggestions, and special thanks to Gary Hodgson, Mike Gilmor and Laurie Kennedy for their encouragement and contributions.


Of all building structures, fatigue considerations are most important for those supporting cranes. Be that as it may, then check for the fatigue and serviceability limit states.

For the ultimate limit states, the factored resistance may allow yielding over portions of the cross section depending on the class of steel cross-section as given in Clause the load that is likely to be applied repeatedly. The fatigue resistance depends very much on the particular detail Crane loads have many unique characteristics that lead to the following considerations: This guide generally follows accepted North American practice that has evolved from years of experience in the design and construction suppoting light to moderate service and up to and including steel mill buildings that support overhead travelling cranes AISESupportignGriggs and InnisGriggs Similar practices, widely used for other types of crane services, such as underslung cranes and monorails, have served well MBMA The symbol C means a crane load.

C vs – vertical load due to a single crane C vm – vertical load due to multiple cranes C ss – side thrust due to a single crane C sm – side thrust due to multiple cranes C is – impact due to a structurees crane 2. For examples of several different types of cranes and their supporting structures, see Weaver and MBMA This is sometimes the case in steel mills and foundries. On the other hand, the operation may be random as in warehousing operations. Weaver provides examples of duty stefl analyses albeit more appropriate for crane selection than for the supporting structure.

In addition to these, load AISE notes that some of the recommended crane runway loadings may be somewhat conservative. This is deemed appropriate for suppporting mill type building design where the cost of conservatism should be relatively low. However when assessing existing structures as covered in Chapter 6, engineering judgment should be applied judiciously as renovation costs are generally higher. See AISECMAAGriggsMillman and Structure for more information Vertical Loads Impact, or dynamic load allowance, is applied only to crane vertical wheel loads, and is only considered in the design of runway beams and their connections.

Impact is factored as a live load. For most applications, this is thought to be a conservative approach. Following Rowswell and Millman impact is not included in design for fatigue. For certain applications such as lifting of hydraulic stele, the lifted load can jamb and without load limiting devices, the line pull can approach the stalling torque of the motor, which may be two to three times the nominal crane lifting capacity.

This possibility should be made known to the designer of the structure. The rigid arm contributes to side thrust. Historically, information provided on weights of crane components, particularly trolleys, has been rather unreliable and therefore is not necessarily covered by the commonly used dead load factor.

Caution should be Crane manufacturers provide information on maximum wheel loads. These loads may differ from wheel to wheel, depending on the relative positions of the crane components and the lifted load. The designer usually has to determine the concurrent wheel loads on the opposite rail from statics, knowing the masses of the unloaded crane, the trolley, the lifted load, and the range of the hook s often called hook approach from side to side.

Note that minimum wheel loads combined with other loads such as side thrust may govern certain aspects of design. Foundation stability should be checked under these conditions Side Thrust Crane side thrust is a horizontal force of short duration applied transversely by the crane wheels to the rails. For underslung acceleration or braking of the crane trolley s trolley impact with the end stop non-vertical hoisting action skewing or crabbing of the crane as it moves along the runway misaligned crane rails or bridge end trucks The effect of the side thrust forces are combined with other design loads as presented subsequently.

Side thrust total side thrust from Table 2. For new construction it is assumed that the cranes and supporting structures unaccounted-for forces and consequential serious damage. Side thrust from monorails is due only to non-vertical hoisting action and swinging; therefore, the values in Table 2.

The number of cycles of side thrust is taken as one-half the number of vertical load cycles because the thrust can be in two opposite directions. The NBCC should be reviewed by the structure designer.


Following AISEit is recommended that it be based on the full rated speed of the bridge, power off. Because it is an accidental event, the load factor is taken as Vibrations Although rarely a problem, resonance should be avoided. An imperfection in a trolley or bridge wheel could set up undesirable forcing frequencies.

Crane-Supporting Steel Structures: Design Guide (Third Edition)

Load combinations given in the NBCCincluding crane loads, are presented here. Crane load combinations C 1 to C 7 shown in Table 2. For load combinations involving column-mounted jib cranes, see Fisher and Thomas Structkres 4 C vm C sm C lm Two cranes in tandem in one aisle only. No more than two need be considered except in extraordinary circumstances.

guide for the design of crane-supporting steel structures

C 6 C vm C sm Maximum of two cranes in each adjacent aisle, side thrust from two cranes in one aisle only. Dead load is a steady state and does not contribute to the stress range.

However, the dead load stress may cause the stress range to be entirely in compression and therefore favourable or wholly or partly in tension and therefore unfavourable Ultimate Limit States of Strength and Stability In each of the following inequalities, for load combinations with crane loads, the factored resistance, R, and the effect of factored loads such as 0. The most unfavourable combination governs. Case Principal Loads Companion Loads 1.

Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes with the exception that the load L is all the live loads excluding loads due to cranes. For design of the crane runway beams in an enclosed structure for instance, S and W would not normally apply. The designer should check for updates. Steel structures that support cranes and hoists require special attention to the design and the details of construction in order to provide safe and serviceable structures, particularly as related to fatigue.

The fatigue life of a structure can be described as the number of cycles of loading requiredKulak and GrondinFisher, Kulak and SmithFisher and Van de PasMillmanReemsnyder and Demo and Ricker The vast majority of crane runway beam problems, whether welded or bolted, are caused by fatigue cracking of welds, bolts and parent metal. Problems have not been restricted to the crane runway beams, however. For example, trusses or joists that are not designed for repeated loads from monorails or underslung cranes have structural components and details that are subjected to repeated loads to ensure the structure has adequate fatigue resistance.

Members to be checked for fatigue are members whose loss due to fatigue damage would adversely affect the integrity of the structural system. As given in S, Clause 26, the principal factors affecting the fatigue performance of a structural detail are considered to be the nature of the detail, the range of stress to which the detail is subjected, and the number of cycles of a load.

The susceptibility of details to fatigue varies and, for convenience, Clause 26, in common with the relationship between the allowable fatigue stress range of constant amplitude and the number of cycles of loading is given. These are the S-N stress vs. Two methods of assessing crane-supporting structures for fatigue have developed. Historically, at least for as related to the crane service. While this has worked reasonably well, this approach has two shortcomings.

First, the number of cycles, by pigeon-holing the structure, may be set somewhat too high as related to the service life of the structure in question, and second, only the maximum stress range is considered.

The second, more recent, approach is to assess the various ranges of stress and corresponding numbers of cycles to which the detail is subjected and to try to determine the cumulative effect using the Palmgren-Miner rule as given in Section This can be advantageous, especially in examining existing structures.

The assessment of the number of cycles nn requires care as an element of the structure may be exposed to fewer or more repetitions than the number of crane lifts or traverses along the runway. For example, if out-of-plane crane passages N where n is the number of wheels on the rail, per crane.

Also, for short-span crane runway beams depending on the distances between the crane wheels, one pass of the crane can result in more than one loading cycle on the beam, particularly if cantilevers are involved.