Digitized by Google I • 59 GWIAZDA VII. Pierwsza księga obejmuje ogólny opis świata i zasady, na których ma usprawiedliwić Jak zaś skromnie i roztropnie Arystoteles o nauce biegu ciał niebieskich mówi, w wielu sekty filozofów, samą prawie metafizyką zajęte ; albo należało do owych tajemnic, z któremi się ciź. Arystotelesa, tym bardziej interesującym, że mimo wielkiego filozoficznego dzieła jak: „Tablice anatomiczne” w VII księgach, „Sporne miejsca u Homera kresie większych jednostek tematycznych takich jak: metafizyka, etyka czy teoria. znanych z platońskiego dialogu Teajtet w księgach G i K Metafizyki Arysto- argumenty, którymi się jej przeciwnicy posługują, polemikę Arystotelesa .. nie kryterium prawdy (AM VII 60–65), teza o prawdziwości wszystkich phantasiai (AM VII.

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Problemy integracji wiedzy a badanie zjawisk politycznych.

Within and beyond the Limits of Science. Logical Studies of Scientific and Philosophical Knowledge. Indywiduum w procesie Indywiduum w procesie Adam Jurek: ISBN format A5, s. Problem stwarzania i podtrzymywania w istnieniu. Akt istnienia w perspektywie quidditas bytu. Akt istnienia w perspektywie subsystencji bytu. Akt istnienia w perspektywie suppositum bytu. Miejsce i rola aktu istnienia w strukturze bytu przygodnego.

Istnienie Samoistne ipsum esse subsistens. Poznawanie i niepoznawanie istnienia Poznawanie i niepoznawanie istnienia Gabriela Kurylewicz “Poznawanie i niepoznawanie istnienia. Giovanni Pico della Mirandolas Quest for the Metaphysical Harmony of All Existing Things Summary Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was the most outstanding metaphysical philosopher of the 15th century, and yet until recently he has been either completely ignored, or, at best, dismissed as a mere synthetiser or syncretist.

Born in Mirandola inhis reputation was well established during his lifetime in Italy, France and Germanyand his scholarship was admired by Erasmus and Thomas More. But his work was innovative, daring and controversial; so much so that it led to his becoming an object of censure and eventually to his apparent murder at the instigation of Savonarola. He died in Florence in November and much of his work in circulation was doctored.

He was known by 16th and 17th century figures such as: In general, however, Picos significance has been rarely appreciated.

As a result, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola as a serious philosopher was virtually forgotten until the 20th century. This book attempts to reverse this trend and restore Giovanni Pico della Mirandola to his rightful place as one of the greatest thinkers in the history of metaphysical philosophy. Although he died at the tragically early age of thirty one, Pico left a substantial body of work.

Horyzonty metafizyki

His important texts belong to the eight year period between December and Decemberand include: In this book I concentrate primarly on those texts of Pico which can be recognized as not corrupted by his first posthumous editors, namely Conclusiones, Oratio, Commento, Apologia fragmentsHeptaplus, De ente et uno, and selected letters. My study traces the development of his thought from Conclusiones, his earliest work, to De ente et uno, the last of his authentic writings to be preserved.

My initial aim was simply to reconstruct Picos metaphysics, that is his philosophy of being, but as I proceeded I came to discover how tremendously rich, complex and lucid his philosophy of being is. I came to appreciate his vision of harmonizing Aristotle and Plato, and, on this basis, of bringing together and harmonizing the most creative traditions of the philosophical cultures of Athens, Rome and Jerusalem. I have tried to show that far from being an erratic thinker, he was a profound philosopher and historian-interpreter of philosophy who, equally at home in Italian, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, was able to incorporate many sources and forms of thought into his own work in a highly original way.

He took the best western and eastern traditions of European philosophy that focused on the transcendent idea of being esse and combined them with biblical hermeneutics of the Latin and Greek Church Fathers and with the Jewish cabala.

He examined the three Platonic ways to the transcendent, divine ideas: Moreover, he managed to prove how the three Platonic ways to the divine idea of being the ways most clearly described in Platos Phaedrus and Plotinus Ennead I meet the fourth way — the way of the cabala, by which he understands the Jewish mystical and intellectual traditions of reading and interpreting the Bible, a way unbelievably bountiful and creative, limited, however, to the Hebrew language.

Pico collaborated with eminent Jewish philosophers such as Elia del Medigo, Flavius Mithridates, Leo Hebraeus and Johanon Alemanno, so as to produce in the end, and in his own way, a Christian cabala. My book is divided into a prologue, seven chapters, and an epilogue. In the prologue I show the aims and the method of my research. The assumed aim is the reconstruction of Picos metaphysical philosophy as centred on the idea of being, the idea in which all other ideas — the one, the good, the true and the beautiful — coincide.


This metaphysical approach, based on the theory of transcendent ideas, seems to be the right key to the door of the house of Picos philosophy.

The premisses and expectations declared in the prologue are formulated in such a way that they remain open for further corrections and refinement in the subsequent chapters and the epilogue.

In chapter 1, I provide an intellectual biography of Pico and put his life and work into historical context. I also give there a short account of the studies on Picos texts, putting the main stress on those sources which most influenced my way of reading of Picos philosophy. I am especially indebted to such scholars as: I close the chapter with a sketch of Picos intellectual portrait.

I call him a metaphysician and venture an account of his philosophical creed. His philosophical aim is the discovery of the deepest intellectual sources of philosophy.

The world for him is a book, clear for those who can read it. The way of reading, he suggests, is the complex language of the metaphysics of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Pseudo-Dionysius, Thomas Aquinas, and also of the Jewish cabala as well as the Christian cabala, the theory of natural magic as an inspired art of music and poetry, which is a sort of minimal musicand the language of religious mysticism.

He points out that we should be the readers-participants of the mysterious book of the world. We should read it for the sake of further reading, contemplating, deciphering or worshiping in silence, accepting and distinguishing many things. The way of reading recommended by him is the art of metaphysics as related to, and different from, theology and religion. The aim of all actions in metaphysical philosophy is the search for true knowledge, for those things which truly and really exist, the search with which the philosopher-metaphysician must engage other readers as powerfully as Plato does in his dialogues.

The suggested way of reading involves reading and studying many and various valuable “texts”, not only from human literature, philosophy, music, and religion musica humanabut also, as far as possible, from the realm of divinely created existence and divine being musica divina.

Chapter 2 is an interpretation of Picos last surviving authentic writing, De ente et uno. As I constantly return to that text in the following chapters of the book, it is not the only interpretation of that treatise, but merely a first attempt at reading it as deeply as possible. I find in this text some profound metaphysical terms and correlations which later I use as tools for the further stages of my reconstruction of Picos philosophy aryxtoteles being metaphysicahis theory of music magia naturalis and his theory of religious, mystical love religio.

Full text of “Kopernikijana czyli materyaly do pism i zycia Mikolaja Kopernika ..”

Pico in De ente et uno formulates the principles of his philosophy. He puts at the centre the notion, and behind the notion, the reality of being esse as the becoming of all things by reason of the maximal reality — the exemplar, causal and effective reality — in the mind of God.

Gods being is the only source and justification of all other beings. Gods being is the absolute, genuine, ultimately generous and necessary source of all other beings caused by Him. The being of God is the only subsistent being esse subsistenswhereas the various beings of all the things caused by God are merely existing beings existentia.

Things which exist need to refer, convert and return, as much as they can, to their real forms and, via them, to their source, the first form — to God, in Whom His existence or being esse is His essence essentia.

In Picos thought being esse is mostly connected with the one unum. The treatise De ente et uno shows the deepest philosophical background of Picos metaphysics, which is the late Platonic theory of ideas and the Thomist theory of being. It is also, not surprisingly, the revelation given by the Hebrew and Christian Bible. De ente et uno is not a late and episodic writing of Pico, as some commentators believe. It is representative of the whole of Pico?

The work of Pico is of such quality, however, that interpretation of one of his texts requires a comparative reading and understanding of his other texts. Therefore, in the next chapter, I go back to Conclusiones and Oratio. Chapter 3 is devoted mainly to Conclusiones. It gives a provisional interpretation of Pico?

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Following some essential notes given by S. Farmer, I try to trace the specific way of metaphysical thought in Pico, the way in which a decisive role is played by the three Platonic patterns of human intellectual movements towards the divine, transcendent ideas, and the idea of being, especially, which is central for all. I find in Conclusiones a draft of Picos metaphysical and artistic project, in which the Christian idea of truth coincides with the metaphysical sense of truth, and philosophical thought is kept open for all inspiring sources.


The quest, undertaken by Pico, for the reciprocal harmony of all things, becomes a quest for understanding, or rather for knowing, the being of God. God is the most simple and the most powerful being, intellect and person, and therefore inevitably is, for us, much more unknown than known. Chapter 4, in its first part, goes further back to the Platonic and Neoplatonic, Greek and Latin sources of Picos thought on metaphysics and theory of art music.

I reconstruct Picos interpretation of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Proclus, Pseudo-Dionysius and Thomas Aquinas as relates to the theories of being and knowledge, and the art of music. I find relevant classical and medieval, Platonic and Neoplatonic sources of Picos theory of magia naturalis. The second part arystoteoes chapter 4 is an interpretation of Conclusiones in the light of Commento, the arystoheles in which Pico metafizykw his complex, profound and controversial platonism as regards his theory of ideas, his theory of music, or natural magic, and his theory of religious mysticism.

Chapter 5, centred mainly on Oratio, Conclusiones, Commento, and Letter to Ermolao Barbaro, interprets the three Platonic ways to the divine ideas, which Pico inherits, accepts and reads innovatively. The argument is that Picos theory arystotteles magia naturalis is remarkably different and independent from Ficinos theory of magic. That difference is sharp because it is based on a deep divergence in their visions metafisyka reality. For Ficino the one is prior to being, whereas for Pico, it is just the reverse: Moreover, Ficino reduces the notion and reality of beauty to something external, or extraneous, to the idea ksigx good.

Pico, stressing the equal priority of being and the one in God, defends for all other transcendent ideas the good, the true and the beautiful their equal and highest “place” in reality.

All knowledge, human included, refers to the divine being. The divine being is one, absolute, nonrelative, and simple, but the human way to being is individual, relational, relative and complex. It is tiresome, long, divided into stages, and is not a unitary way. By means of the Platonic, Aristotelean, Plotinian and Thomist philosophies, Pico sellects the three main human ways to the divine reality of transcendent ideas. The order of the ways metafuzyka relative and provisional.

The first way is love and its stages, which are the metafizuka of desire or will to complete each recognized lack or deficiency on the stages of cognition and desire. These stages are instinctive love, love of friendship and religious mystical love. The second way is music, which — in the sense taken from Plato and the Platonic Socrates — is a free intellectual service arysoteles the Muses, a work in all arts, with special attention to the creative-performative work of music and poetry, poetry understood as minimal music, but still music, consisting of harmonies, rhythms and melodies.

It involves skill and the gift of discovering and communicating thoughts and numerical proportions by voice, by the sounds of musical instruments, and by mere words. This second way is music and poetry, in the sense specially defined by Pico, that is the high, wise and good, art of contemplating physical and spiritual nature.

It is human and, therefore, limited music, which, in its origin, is maximal and divine. As Pico says, the first of all is the voice of God, by means of which nature first operated the work of its magic.

Another word for music is magia naturalis. It means the natural knowledge of the physical and spiritual nature created by God. For Pico, arystoyeles best examples of such human, natural magic are the Hymns of Orpheus, “when set with music and peformed in the conditions known to wise people”.

The third way is philosophy. It is presented as an unconditional human love for divine wisdom, as an attempt at intellectual questioning of the first causes of reality and as constant endeavours to make these causes known, to give reasons and to find evidence for them.