Anredera cordifolia is an evergreen Perennial Climber growing to 9 m (29ft) by m (0ft 8in) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. Common Name: Madeira Vine. Anredera cordifolia. Flowering plant. Photograph by: Shepherd, R.C.H.. Image credit to Australian National Botanic Gardens. Habit, Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine, mignonette vine, uala hupe); typical habit, climbing and smothering native vegetation. Ulupalakua.
|Published (Last):||26 February 2007|
|PDF File Size:||1.60 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.98 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
It smothers ground vegetation and, with its fleshy leaves and production of thick aerial tubers, it is so heavy that it easily breaks branches and can even bring down whole trees. It has shown itself to be a very damaging weed in moist forests, blanketing the ground and enveloping the canopy, restricting light and preventing anredega germination of native plants.
It has proved very difficult to control, but recent advances with biological control have shown cordifloia following the release of the first agent in Australia in Antedera genus Anredera Juss. The common name of madeira vine is also sometimes used with other species of the genus, though none are native to the island of Madeira. The name is also occasionally used with a specific epithet to differentiate between them; for example, A.
Adapted from Starr et al. Stems are slender, climbing to m in height in a single growing anredsra, often reddish in colour. Oval or heart-shaped leaves are bright green and shiny, cm long and cm wide, broadly ovate, often involute, sometimes lanceolate, scarcely succulent to succulent according to degree of exposure, margins often turned inwards, base subcordate or cordate; apex obtuse, subsessile or with a petiole 1- 2 cm long, commonly with small anrederra tubers in their axils.
The potato-like tubers, produced on anredega stems covered in warts, are specific and typical in identifying the plant, but can grow to 25 cm in diameter. Anredrea of fragrant, cream flowers occur on simple or branched racemes, pendent to 18cm cm long excluding the common cordifolix, up to 30 cm including it, with numerous small, cirdifolia, fragrant flowers.
Pedicels are mm long, bracts 1. Lower bracteoles are 0. The five tepals are mm long and elliptic-oblong to broadly elliptic. Filaments are narrow-triangular, widely divergent, bending outwards near base, with a single style shorter than the stamens and clavate. It has shown itself to be adaptable to Mediterranean, sub-tropical and tropical climates, and has become invasive especially in Oceania and Africa Cagnotti et al.
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
A risk assessment of A. Anredera species are typically found in dry scrub and thickets in its native South America Starr et al. Where it is an exotic invasive species, A. In Australia it is found invading the edges of rainforest, tall open forests, damp sclerophyll forests and riparian vegetation, whereas in New Zealand it is common in waste land, coastal gulleys and scrubland Cordicolia, It is found invading habitats similar to the above in some Pacific islands, but in other islands it remains commonly cultivated and, although noted to escape often, only rarely becomes naturalized.
In South Africa, A. Littoral rainforest reserves were consistently predicted to provide bioclimatically suitable habitat for the five vines examined under both current and future climate scenarios, and the consequences and potential strategies for managing exotic plant invasions in these protected areas in the coming decades was assessed.
The two infraspecific taxa in A. Stems bear thousands of aerial tubers which form clusters high in the vine, and underground tubers, which may be football-sized, grow on rhizomes up to a metre deep. Aerial tubers can survive and resprout for cordifplia than five years in the canopy cordigolia the stems have been cut, cirdifolia high densities of more than tubers per square metre have been reported in the soil Starr et al. The chromosome numbers of the two subspecies reported by Xifreda et al.
Seedling production was observed in Australia for the first time in south-eastern Queensland by Swarbricksuggesting that this would be the fertile diploid A.
Seedlings were found both below and away from existing clumps on several occasions and it was concluded that the possibility of seed production, seed dispersal and the building up of seed banks in the soil should be taken into account during management of A.
In New Zealand, flowering occurs from January to April but no fruiting was observed. In warm climates, very rapid growth rates have been observed, up to 1 m extensions in shoot length per week and m in a growing season Starr et al.
Significantly more stomata were observed on the abaxial sides of leaves under high light levels, which may account for its ability to fix large amounts of carbon and rapidly respond to light gaps. The leaves had very narrow veins and no sclerenchyma, suggesting a low construction cost that is associated with invasive plants. There was no significant difference in any traits among different cohorts, supporting the fact that A. Several reports have identified natural enemies of A. There is also a leaf spot disease of A.
For more information see Biological Control. It is dispersed by the movement of both tubers and rhizomes, which spread longer distances by being washed down waterways and, being tolerant to saltwater, also along shorelines in coastal areas Starr et al.
It is also spread by people by being intentionally introduced to new areas as an ornamental and landscape plant. It can readily escape from cultivation as a vine, spreading vegetatively via pieces of rhizome and stem tubers. Plants can also spread in green waste, especially when dumped on bushland edges Starr et al.
It smothers ground vegetation and, with its fleshy leaves and production of thick aerial tubers, restricts light and prevents the germination of native plants.
It is so heavy that it easily breaks branches, reducing trees to poles, and can even bring down whole trees and destroy whole forest canopies. Of the 1, naturalized plant species assessed by Anredrra et al. This process identified three extreme and 19 very high priority species with respect to their ability to have negative impacts on biodiversity.
Several years earlier, Batianoff et al.
The main use of A. Extracts of plant parts are also widely used for traditional medicines in Indonesia and Thailand and possibly also in its native range. The primary aim of rainforest regeneration and measures that can be taken to replace weeds with native species were discussed by Joseph and Blackmoreand the roles of manipulating the use of natural resources by the plants and of exploiting the natural regenerative capacity of native vegetation are highlighted.
The goals of weed eradication and weed control including A. Physical control of A. All parts of the vine must be removed, including underground tubers and vines climbing up trees to prevent them from resprouting. Placing a plastic sheet below the plant is recommended before any manual control begins to ensure that all falling parts of the plant, especially aerial tubers, can be gathered and safely removed Starr et al.
Plants parts should not be disposed of in the sea as they may sprout wherever they come ashore.
Anredera cordifolia Madeira Vine, Heartleaf madeiravine PFAF Plant Database
Putting black sheeting as a anresera over cut areas has also been suggested to prevent regrowth PIER, Follow-up herbicide treatments are more effective on young resprouts growing from fragments left in the ground following physical clearance, and before tubers have had the time to redevelop see Chemical control. However, long-term treatment is required in any case. Repeat applications are always required, although they are especially effective on new resprouts following manual clearance.
Timing of follow-up spraying is important because if left cordifolja long new underground tubers will form, thereby prolonging successful control. Prior and Armstrong favoured fluroxypyr treatments because at lower concentrations competitive grass species can also establish and then compete with A.
Removal of competition through the use of the non-selective herbicide glyphosate may favour re-invasion from cordifolla tubers, especially if applied at a time of year when translocation activity is not high.
There appeared to be no preferential time for spraying. Model predictions indicated cordifoliaa monthly applications of fluroxypyr would be required to stabilize the population in the absence of recruitment of new individuals and subsequently reduce it at a rate dependent upon the mortality of cordidolia subterranean tuber bank Prior et al.
These also gave good control of 3-month-old plants, as did tribenuron-methyl, fluroxypyr and amitrole. Research into biological control of A. Chrysomelidae from Brazil and Plectonycha correntina Lacordaire Coleoptera: Chrysomelinae from Argentina and Brazil Westhuizen et al.
Adults and larvae of both chrysomelids fed extensively on leaves and new growth resulting in reductions in leaf and above-ground biomass.
Weeds of Australia – Biosecurity Queensland Edition Fact Sheet
The laboratory host-ranges of these potential agents seem acceptably narrow, with normal development restricted to the host plant. Field surveys conducted in Argentina also showed that Plectonycha correntina was a promising biocontrol agent against A. The host range was evaluated by no-choice larval survival tests and adult feeding and oviposition choice tests, with results indicating that the host range of P.
It was approved for release as a biological control agent in February Snow et al. The insect successfully overwintered at 15 of the initial 29 sites, with adults, larvae and eggs being recorded.
Damage anreddra at all cordiffolia were generally low, reflecting that this was the first year of releases. Preliminary analysis of data indicated that establishment did not appear to be closely related to the number anredfra insects released, so other factors such as season of release, light levels or density of predators may be important Snow et al.
Further research on genetic variation is needed, especially to confirm the ploidy levels of the two subspecies and their ability to reproduce by seed, as well as identifying the distribution of the subspecies, both in their native range cordifolua where they are introduced.
Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17 1: Impact assessment and analysis of sixty-six priority invasive weeds in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 18 1: Beczner L, Vassanyi R, Identification of a new potexvirus isolated from Boussingaultia cordifolia and B.
Tagungsbericht der Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Variation in leaf structure of the invasive Madeira vine Anredera cordifolia, Basellaceae at different light levels. Australian Journal of Botany, 61 5: Biology and host specificity of Plectonycha correntina Lacordaire Chrysomelidaea candidate for the biological control of Cordifokia cordifolia Tenore Steenis Basellaceae. African Entomology, 15 2: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria.
Prioritizing weed species based on their threat and ability to impact on biodiversity: Plant Protection Quarterly, 25 3: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
Flora of China, Predicted impact of exotic vines on an endangered ecological community under future climate change. Biological Invasions [Plant Invasions: Theoretical and Practical Challenges.